Wednesday, August 26, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"Racism Blamed in Shock Wave of Church Burnings,Ã¢â¬ read the shouting feature in the New York Daily News. Ã¢â¬Å"The South is Burning: A Rash of Torching at Black Churches Has Resurrected the Ugly Specter of Racism,Ã¢â¬ tolled in the Toronto Star. Newsweek cautioned of Ã¢â¬Å"Terror in the Night Down South,Ã¢â¬ While USA Today revealed that Ã¢â¬Å"Arson at Black Churches Echoes Bigotry of Past.Ã¢â¬ (Fumento 1) In the mid year of 1996, the U.S. media broadly detailed a flood in white bigot burnings of dark temples in the American South. Everything began the Center for Democratic Renewal declared a gigantic increment in incendiarisms against dark chapels by whites. Dark houses of worship were consuming at the pace of one every week, for the most part because of incendiarism (Swett 2). The media bounced on the story. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The racial church burnings before long became issues of Politicians. President Bill Clinton was running for re-appointment and frantically required the votes of the dark networks. Clinton focused on the separation issue. Clinton held a White House highest point on the issue and allocated the FBI to explore. In the long run, he passed a law approving 12 million dollars to battle torchings of places of worship. During an energetic discourse President Clinton shared that he had, Ã¢â¬Å"vivid and excruciating recollections of dark places of worship being copied in my own state when I was a child.Ã¢â¬ Ironically, students of history and social equality activists in Arkansas could discover no notice of any congregation incendiarisms in the state during his adolescence. Moreover, Al Gore was cited Ã¢â¬Å"For an extremely enormous number of the burnings, what you will discover eventually, I foresee, is that a consistent theme of basic prejudice is present.Ã¢â¬ (Elven 2) Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å"The church burnings had all the makings of an incredible story: secret, race, religion and a shocking reverberation of the past.Ã¢â¬ (Heyboer 1). Michael Fumento a columnist for the Wall Street Journal composed, Ã¢â¬Å"It creates the impression that the general population might be at long last getting on that the dark church consuming pestilence of 1996 is really one of the greatest tricks to tag along in years.Ã¢â¬ actually, free examinations by a few correspondents, including those at the Associated press, The New Yorker and USA Today have uncovered no plague and little proof of prejudice. Michael Kelly, detailed that fires at chapels both white and dark had forcefully diminished since 1980, and that the general number in 1994 was the least in fifteen years. Kelly clarifies the ascent in chapel burnings was give due to copycat illegal conflagrations who may have been supremacist however who likewise had been roused by the media consideration given to the flames.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Current monetary conditions in the U. S an overall the world are ascending to disturbing circumstances, with the predicament being basic that whether its expansion or downturn, which is hampering the economy severely. The liquidity issues are influencing the U. S economy severely, the cash flexibly is contracting in spite of the fact that the Federal Reserve is seeking after an accommodative money related strategy, yet because of its lesser control and the dynamism of the U. S economy, this strategy appears to have a low impact on the liquidity circumstance in the general economy. After an ascent in the cash flexibly for barely any months the cash gracefully has been contracting from that point forward, the M2 part of the cash flexibly, which comprises of money, customer stores and checking has been contracting. While M3 which comprises of the abovementioned, in addition to the enormous time stores and different things is likewise altering its course towards a lower end. The figure portrays the patterns of the cash gracefully and how it has plunged bit by bit. Figure 1: Annual U. S. Cash Supply Growth Source: Shadow Government Statistics, 2009 This condition can result into the debilitating of financial action and pulling out cash from stocks. As of late the ruin in the buyer spending and the bringing down of the stock costs is the indication of seared liquidity in the economy (Kellner, 2003). In this present circumstance of monetary quandary, the current financial conditions requests dynamic measures from the new president and the U. S congress to beat the perils made by the debilitating economy. Government should attempt to drive greater liquidity into the market; the FED should attempt to build the cash flexibly through bringing down the loan fee, driving more cash into the economy by subsidizing the organizations and the companies that can make greater steadiness in the economy. The administration should attempt to make more occupations into the economy by pushing their spending this will unquestionably make more customers spending and subsequently giving a ground to battle downturn in the economy. These monetary measures are the need of the time and they will positively have their impacts on the economy. Hence, by acting proactively on these procedures the legislature can without much of a stretch face all the troublesome conditions. References Kellner, I. (2003, November). Where has all the cash gone? Recovered Feburary 10, 2009, from Market Watch : http://www. marketwatch. com/News/Story/Story. aspx? guid=%7BF1B1B20B-EBDE-435F-8349-A19E26DBB945%7D&siteid=mktw&dist=nwhpm Figures Figure 1: Annual U. S. Cash Supply Growth Shadow Government Statistics. (2009). Yearly U. S. Cash Supply Growth. Recovered Feburary 10, 2009 from http://www. shadowstats. com/charts_republish#m3
Thursday, August 20, 2020
Open Thread Not Admitted Early There were many wonderful applicants to MIT this year, which unfortunately means that we had to turn down some great students. For those of you who fall into this category, this is an open forum for you to talk, shake it off, and remember that you will survive, even thrive, wherever you go; whatever you do. Stove-cook your oatmeal and never look back. We understand that this may be a difficult time for you, but we ask that you converse in the comments below civilly and with the best of intentions, as that is the spirit of our process. Open Thread Not Admitted Early There were many wonderful applicants for Early Action this year, which unfortunately means that we had to turn down a large number of incredible students. For those of you who fall into this category, this is an open forum for you to talk and shake it off together. We understand that this may be a difficult time for you, but we ask that you converse civilly and with the best of intentions, as that is the spirit of our process. Open Thread Not Admitted Early There were many wonderful applicants for Early Action this year, which unfortunately means that we had to turn down a large number of incredible students. For those of you who fall into this category, this is an open forum for you to talk. We understand that this may be a difficult time for you, but we ask that you converse civilly and with the best of intentions, as that is the spirit of our process. *hug* Open Thread Not Admitted Early There were many wonderful applicants for Early Action this year, which unfortunately means that we had to turn down a large number of incredible students. For those of you who fall into this category, this is an open forum for you to talk and shake it off together. We understand that this may be a difficult time for you, but we ask that you converse civilly and with the best of intentions, as that is the spirit of our process. Open Thread Not Admitted Early There were many wonderful applicants for Early Action this year, which unfortunately means that we had to turn down a large number of incredible students. For those of you who fall into this category, this is an open forum for you to talk and shake it off together. We understand that this may be a difficult time for you, but we ask that you converse civilly and with the best of intentions, as that is the spirit of our process. Open Thread Not Admitted Early There were many wonderful applicants to MIT this year, which unfortunately means that we had to turn down some great students. For those of you who fall into this category, this is an open forum for you to talk, shake it off, and remember that you will survive, even thrive, wherever you go; whatever you do.
Sunday, May 24, 2020
A polymer is a large molecule that is made up of repeating subunits connected to each other by chemical bonds. Do you need some examples of polymers? Here is a list of materials that are natural and synthetic polymers, plus some examples of materials that are not polymers at all. Natural Polymers Polymers are both found in nature and manufactured in laboratories. Natural polymers were used for their chemical properties long before they were understood in the chemistry laboratory: Wool, leather, and flax were processed into fibers to make clothing; animal bone was boiled down to make glues. Natural polymers include: Proteins, such as hair, nails, tortoiseshellCellulose in paper and treesStarches in plants such as potatoes and maizeDNAPitch (also known as bitumen or tar)Wool (a protein made by animals)Silk (a protein made by insects)Natural rubber and lacquer (proteins from trees) Synthetic Polymers Polymers were first manufactured by people seeking substitutes for natural ones, in particular, rubber and silk. Among the earliest were semi-synthetic polymers, which are natural polymers modified in some way. By 1820, natural rubber was modified by making it more fluid; and cellulose nitrate prepared in 1846 was used first as an explosive and then as a hard moldable material used in collars, Thomas Edisons film for movies and Hilaire de Chardonnets artificial silk (called nitrocellulose). Fully synthetic polymers include: Bakelite, the first synthetic plasticNeoprene (a manufactured form of rubber)Nylon, polyester, rayon (manufactured forms of silk)Polyethylene (plastic bags and storage containers)Polystyrene (packing peanuts and Styrofoam cups)TeflonEpoxy resinsSiliconeSilly puttySlime Non-Polymers So while paper plates, styrofoam cups, plastic bottles, and a block of wood are all examples of polymers, there are some materials which are not polymers. Examples of materials which are not polymers include: ElementsMetalsIonic compounds, such as salt Usually, these materials form chemical bonds, but not the long chains that characterize polymers. There are exceptions. For example, graphene is a polymer made up of long carbon chains. Resources and Further Reading Cowie, J.M.G. and Valeria Arrighi. Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Modern Materials, 3rd ed. Boca Raton, LA: CRC Press, 2007.Ã Sperling, Leslie H. Introduction to Physical Polymer Science, 4th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley Sons, 2006.Ã Ã Young, Robert J., and Peter A. Lovell. Introduction to Polymers, 3rd ed. Boca Raton, LA: CRC Press, Taylor Francis Group, 2011. Print.
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Medicinal services IT security managers can likewise have a troublesome time with regards to guaranteeing that HIPAA physical protections are constantly taken after. As innovation keeps on developing, so does the medicinal services industry. Portable PCs, tablets and mobile phones are rapidly getting to be plainly ordinary inside human services associations, as specialists and medical attendants can utilize the gadgets to rapidly impart to each other in a protected issue. Be that as it may, lost, lost, and stolen versatile gadgets are one of the main sources in medicinal services security ruptures. Physical protections are a basic part of human services associations, particularly with things being stolen from either offices or unapprovedÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Fundamental office get to: Organizations need to actualize strategies and techniques to restrict physical access to frameworks with ePHI. Besides, just approved staff ought to be allowed access to a medicinal services of fice. Notwithstanding something as apparently essential as introducing quality entryway locks could help keep an information rupture from happening. Server farms, fringe hardware areas, IT staff workplaces and workstation areas all need safety efforts to ensure that no unapproved faculty can get to the office, not to mention ePHI. Alongside entryway locks, surveillance cameras, and window locks are additionally critical measures to keep social insurance associations secure. Workstations ought to likewise be shielded from community or review. In addition, passages and ways out to places that house ePHI could conceivably profit by included layers of security. Representative preparing: According to the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) HIPAA Security Series, all staff or workers must comprehend their parts in office security. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(104) " electrode which is subsequent stripping of these metals allows the quantification of these metal ions\." INTRODUCTION Recent studies have shown a rise in the level of heavy metal in the human body and the everyday environment. These finding have increased the importance of heavy metal analysis which have become a major task in areas such as toxicological, epidemiological and environmental research. Trace metal analysis has a wide range of applications these include medical diagnostics, medical device implantation, and pharmaceutical and food analysis etc. We will write a custom essay sample on Determination of traces of heavy metal using anodic stripping voltammetry or any similar topic only for you Order Now In terms of environmental research, pollutants or just the general level of trace heavy metal may be quantified. In a society in which the effects climate change becomes more apparent it is important to be able to monitor and thereby control environmental pollution so as to find way to improve it as well as maintain of ecological balance. There are many well-established analytical methods that are available for detecting, measuring, and monitoring heavy metals. Many of the analytical methods are used for detection in environmental samples .Detection in environmental samples is different to that of laboratory samples in that concentration of element in environmental sample may fluctuate with certain samples having very lower concentrations. Subsequently the need for improvement of analysis technique that are able to detect at lower detection limits is continually sort after so as to obtain more precise results. 1. Trace metal analysis techniques Types of detection method Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS): This method of analysis determines the elemental composition of a sample via the absorption of light to measure the concentration of gas-phase atoms. It uses lamps whose core is made of the element. The light source is a lamp with a core made of the analyte of interest, this gives off light that is associated with the element and the sample absorbs this light. The analyte atoms in the sample are vaporized in a furnace and transition to higher electronic energy levels when light is absorbed. The concentration of the specific analyte is dependent on the amount of light absorption. Concentration measurements are determined by a working curve after calibrating the instrument with standards of known concentration. AAS is highly specific therefore each element has to be tested separately, this can be a disadvantage when trying to analyse a mixture, as different lamps must be used when measuring different elements. Another disadvantage to this technique is that the samples must be in solution, or at least volatile in order to be measured. There are a large number of factors that may interfere with measurement these include formation of non-volatile compounds and smoke formation which will absorb light, giving this method a relatively low level precision in comparison to other methods. Voltammetry: This studies the behaviour of analytes via the measurement of the potential and current of a sample or cell containing the analyte. There are different categories of voltammetry these include Polarography voltammetry Ã¢â¬â This process uses DME to produce reproducible effective electrode as a function of time. Linear sweep voltammetry- This process enables pre and post electron transfer reactions to be observed. The potential is linearly increased and the potential range is scanned between the initial potential and final potential Cyclic voltammetry- This is an extension of the linear sweep analysis where by the voltage scan is reversed once maximum current is reach as the as reduction of the analyte would have completed. Anodic stripping voltammetry- determines the specific ionic species by deposition of the analyte and stripping resulting in a redox reaction. The oxidised species registers as a peak Differential pulse voltammetry- Potentiometry: based on measurement of potential of an electrode system consisting of two electrodes, potentiometer and sample containing analyte of interest. This method is advantageous as it can detect ions in presence of whole host of other Substances. The desire for more accurate result had major challenges as developers had to development new analytical methods and improvement of existing methods. In particular, the introduction of powerful modes of atomic absorption spectrometry such as the graphite furnace other newly established analysis techniques include neutron activation Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS): Atoms absorb light at particular frequencies depending on the characteristic of the element. The amount of light absorbed may be linearly correlated to the concentration of the analyte and can thereby be quantified. Samples are deposited into small graphite tube which is subsequently heated to vaporize and atomize the analyte. Neutron Activation: A sample is subjected to a neutron flux and radioactive nuclides are produced. As these radioactive nuclides decay, they emit gamma rays whose energies are characteristic for each nuclide. Comparison of the intensity of these gamma rays with those emitted by a standard permit a quantitative measure of the concentrations of the various nuclides. 1.1 Back ground and history of mercury The dropping mercury electrode was invented in 1922 by Jaroslav Heyrovsky and was the foundation of electroanalytical voltammetry techniques via the development of the first linear sweep voltammetry method of polarography. In the year following between 1947 and 1959 voltammetry at stationary were developed. Electrolysis is the process by which ionic substances are decomposed (broken down) into simpler substances when an electric current is passed through them. In order for electrolysis to occur mass transfer is required between the electrode .Michael FaradayÃ¢â¬â¢s Second Law of Electrolysis was established in 1934 and states that Ã¢â¬Å"If the same quantity of electricity (electric charge) is passed through different electrolytes, the mass of a substance librated or deposited altered at an electrode is directly proportional to their chemical equivalentsÃ¢â¬ . This law recognized the quantitative relationshipbetween current and equivalents of elements. The ficks law of diffusion formulae verified this quantitative relationship which enabled In recent years, mercury electrodes were still widely used in the detection of heavy metals by anodic stripping analysis due to its unique features. Heavy metal ions are reversibly reduced to form amalgams with the thin film of mercury on the electrode surface. The mercury film electrode is formed by electrodeposition onto an electrode which is subsequent stripping of these metals allows the quantification of these metal ions. You read "Determination of traces of heavy metal using anodic stripping voltammetry" in category "Essay examples" Mercury is an important electrode in terms of cathodic process study. Due to its low boiling point mercury as an electrode can be used in many forms these include dropping, streaming and pool configuration. 1.2.1 Types of mercury electrodes There are different types of mercury electrode these are as follows Ã¢â¬â Dropping mercury electrode: This working electrode is usually associated with the voltammetric technique polarography used for environmental analysis, especially for marine study.DME is made from 10-20 cm of glassy capillary tubes with internal diameter of 0.05mm. These dimensions and specification is chose to increase efficiency of the electrode. For example the length of the capillary tubes provides enough static head space to provide a drop time of 3-10 s. There are a number of variations of DME. The vertical orifice capillary has a capillary bent at 90 degrees and removes effect of maxim and depletion where as the Teflon DME is made specifically for use in solution. The reproducibility and vast knowledge about literature make this one of the best electrode for use in electrochemical analysis. Mercury film electrode: a mercury film is formed on an electrode substrate for example glassy carbon, carbon paste and pencil-lead etc. During voltammetric analysis mercury film forms an amalgam with the analyte of interest, which upon oxidation results in a sharp peak, improving resolution between analytes. Hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE): this is very similar to the DME however HDME produces partial mercury drop of controlled geometry and surface area at the end of a capillary where as DME steadily releases drops of mercury during an experiments. HDME is used for voltammetric techniques requiring stationary electrodes. Mercury-plated electrodes: mercury is electroplated onto a solid electrode. Mercury forms a film or an assembly of micro droplets depending on the substrate on which it is plated. Electrode substrates Types of electrode substrate Glassy carbon electrodes: Produced by placing a thick sheet of glassy carbon into a glassy tube with epoxy cement. The surface of the electrode is then polished until it becomes smooth. Carbon paste electrodes: made by the mixture of graphite and nujol until it develops the consistency of a paste. Carbon cloth electrode: carbon cloth have voltage ranges similar to that of carbon electrode The process of formation is by heating woven hydrocarbon polymer fabric to high temperatures. Platinum electrodes: This involves the use of a fine powder known as platinum black placed on solid platinum. Gold electrode: With the ability to be made into different forms i.e. rods, disc etc it is one of the most commonly used electrodes. Indium tin oxide electrode: transparent electrode generally used for Spectra electrochemical measurement In this case glassy carbon will be used as our electrode substrate, this is because of the many advantage glassy carbon has as an electrode substrate. Glassy carbon has good conductivity, low electrical resistance, thermal expansion coefficient is small, hard texture, good gas tightness, a wide scope of application of electric potential (from about -1 ~ 1V), chemical stability, can be made of cylindrical, disc, etc. These properties make it ideal for use in voltammetric analysis as it allow the flow of current in a controlled way and facilitate the transfer of charge to and from the analyte electrode shape, use it as a matrix can also be made of mercury film glassy carbon electrode and chemically modified electrodes. In the electrochemical experiments or electroanalytical chemistry has been increasing wide range of applications. Advantages and disadvantages of mercury electrodes The mercury film forms Mercury as an electrode is advantageous for many reasons these include its ability to release the contaminated drop and grow a clean drop between each experiment unlike solid electrodes which are required to cleaned and undergo a polishing step in order to prevent contamination of the electrode. This also means the electrode is independent of its past history. Metal ions can be deposited from acidic solutions thought thermodynamic state this is impossible without the formation of hydrogen which causes overvoltage which is associated with the reduction of hydrogen ions. Mercury however has a few limitations, one of which is its ease in oxidation, this causes a limitation in the range of anodic potentials used. When dealing with potential greater than + 0.4 V mercury (I) is formed causing a wave that masks the curve of other oxidized species. This occurs at lower potentials in the presence of precipitating ion or mercury (I) complexes. However the single greate st danger mercury poses as an electrode is its high level of toxicity. Mercury as a compound must be handled carefully, since its toxicity has very serious implications for the health and the environment. Mercury has a major impact on the environment due to its ability to progressively build up in successive trophic levels as well as along the food chain by a process of biomagnification. Over time this build up migrate across both biotic (other organisms) and abiotic (soil, air, and water) sources. At the top levels of the aquatic food web are fish-eating species, such as humans, seabirds, seals etc .In a study performed by the environmental protection agency US of fur-bearing animals in Wisconsin, the species with the highest tissue levels of mercury were otter and mink, which are top mammalian predators in the aquatic food chain. Top avian predators of aquatic food chains include osprey and bald eagle. Thus, mercury is shown transferred and accumulated through several food web levels. Aquatic food webs tend to have more levels than terrestrial webs, where wildlife predators rarely feed on each other, and therefore the aquatic biomagnification typically reaches higher values .In terms of health hazard mercury exposure may result in severe neurological effects, symptoms include convulsions, fits, and highly erratic movements. This was seen in Minamata, Japan, from about 1950-1952 where birds experienced severe difficulties in flying as well as domestic animals, especially cats whose diets were high in seafood exhibiting abnormal behaviour. This exposure was caused by the release of methyl mercury in the industrial wastewater from the Chisso CorporationÃ¢â¬â¢s chemical factory, which continued from 1932 to 1968. Chemically modified electrodes The ability of an electrode can be increased by means of chemical modification through the addition of atoms, molecules or nano particles to the surface of the bare electrode increasing its functionality over a wide range. Due to the many disadvantages mercury poses as an electrode, potential replacements for mercury are continually sought. The introduction of bismuth as an alternative has many significant advantages. It has been demonstrated that Bi is a good alternative since it is less toxic and easy to handle. The abilities of bismuth as an electrode are comparable to that of mercury and are attributed Thin Bi film is thus a good substitute candidate for the detection of heavy metals. Bi will be deposited onto the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) using electrodeposition thereby causing heavy metal ions to form an amalgam with Bi. ASV will be used to determine the concentration of heavy metals. The method by which bismuth is coated on to a electrode plays a huge part in its potential as an electrode. There three main methods by which bismuth may be coated onto an electrode. Ex-situ plating: This process involves the bismuth ions in a solution being moved toward the working electrode which in this case is glassy carbon, by an electric field form by passing a current through the electrode there by forming a bismuth film on the electrode. The coated electrode can then be transferred into a sample containing the analyte to be quantified. For the best formation of the film bismuth must be pre-plated in a low ph condition this is because bismuth has a tendency to hydrolyse when in alkaline conditions dues to the presence of water molecule splitting. Acidic conditions catalyse this polymer degradation. Figure The molecular structure of bismuth nitrate pent hydrate In-situ plating: In this process the bismuth film is coats the electrode while the analysis process take s place. It should be noted however in order to do this the concentration of bismuth must exceed that of the analyte of interest. This is because of the possibility of interference due to saturation effects. The method of coating the electrode is superior in that it reduces experimental time as coating and analysis is done simultaneously however this method can only be performed by anodic stripping as it requires a preconcentration step. In this sense this method is not as versatile as ex-situ plating which can use any analysis method to analyse sample. Bismuth pre-cursor: A bismuth precursor can be used to modify an electrode if potential of about -0.1 V is applied onto an electrode resulting in the formation of metallic bismuth. Bi2O3(s) +3H2O+6eÃ¢â¬â2Bi(s) + 6OHÃ¢â¬â Fig The reduction reaction that takes place at the electrode between the electrode and bismuth precursor This method is usually prolific with carbon paste electrodes as it eliminates the need to use anodic stripping to form the film as well as a preplating step before for analysis of sample can take place. Bismuth modified electrode are physically and chemically stable therefore it retains its useful properties in the presence of air, moisture or heat, and under the expected conditions of application.Thus facilitate numerous measurement in different solutions without destroying the film once the electrode is coated with bismuth. This stability can be achieved by the addition of bromide ions (via sodium bromide) to the bismuth solution during the preplating stage of modification. The functionalization of conducting substrates is widely used in electroanalysis in order to confer both selectivity and sensitivity. Ion-exchange membranes are interesting materials for this purpose. Nafion will be drop casted on GCE and then positively charged ions will be incorporated within the negatively charged Nafion film. The application of suitable reduction potential allows the ions to be reduced to their metallic states. ASV will then be employed for the stripping and quantification of these ions. Cu, Zn, and Pb will be the heavy metals ions that will be examined. Ã¢â¬â chemically modified electrodes (plenty of paper in literature), then Nafion (its uses, applications and so onÃ¢â¬ ¦) Electrochemistry HERE YOU CAM IMPROVE. PLEASE DESCRIBE CYCLIC VOLTAMMETRY AND WHY WE USED differential pulse voltammetry for the quantification of heavy metals Electrochemistry is associated with the analysis of chemical reactions in a solution at the boundary of an electron conductor and ionic conductors where transfer of electrons between the electrode and electrolyte take place. This electron transfer is a mechanistic description of the thermodynamic concept of redox, in which the oxidation states of both reaction partners. In general, electrochemistry deals with situations where cations transfer across from a solution Ã¢â¬âelectrode interface via reaction with electrons within the interface. Anions are also transformed within this interface to produce electron, this is all through a series of oxidation and reduction reactions resulting in electrons moving from the anode connected by an external electric circuit to the cathode as a current which is carried by the ions of the supporting electrolyte. The solubility and stability of sample determines which solvent system should be used. Once this is determined compatible supporting electrolyte can be used without causing interference with the oxidation-reduction reaction. Cyclic voltammetry It enables the electrode potential to be rapidly scanned in search of redox couples. Once located, a couple can then be characterized from the potentials of peaks on the cyclic voltammogram and from changes caused by variation of the scan rate. Differential pulse voltammetry Electrochemistry has found extensive applications for the study of chemical reactions. Anodic stripping voltammetry This method of analysis which quantitatively determines the specific ionic species; the analyte of interest is electroplated on the working electrode through a deposition step. During a stripping stage the analyte is oxidised and the current is measured. The oxidation of elemental species is registered as peaks in the current signal at the potential at which the species is being oxidised. The stripping may either be linear, square, wave etc in the case of this experiment it is pulse and cyclic. Four steps of anodic stripping Cleaning: the potential is held at a oxidize state greater than that of the analyte for a period of time to remove it from the electrode. Potential held at a lower potential: The potential of the system is held sufficiently low enough to reduce the analyte and deposit it on the electrode. Deposited material spread evenly on electrode: If solid inert electrode is used this step is not needed. Working electrode is raised to a higher potential and stripping (oxidization) of the analyte as analyte is oxidised it emits electrons which are measured as current. Ã¢â¬â Reference electrode is an electrode with potential which is a) independentof analyte (or other) ions in solution; b)Independent of temperature.In case of figure 2, the electrode sensitive to hydrogen ions is an indicator electrode. Potentialof an indicator electrode depends mainly on the concentration of the analyte ions (in this case hydrogen ions). 2. Experimental determination of trace metals in the Samples 2.1. Apparatus In these experiments, a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) of 3-mm diameter was used as the working electrode with an Ag/AgCl reference electrode and a platinum counter electrode. The glassy carbon electrode was polished with alumina powder (0.3 and 05 alpha) and polishing pad. These three electrodes are used in conjunction with an ivium biopotentiostat which was interfaced with a personal computer. A conventional three-electrode cell arrangement was used for voltammetric measurements. Differential Pulse Stripping Voltammetry was performed anodically to detect trace metals. Experiment was performed at room temperature (22? CÃ ±1) 2.2. Reagents All chemicals used in this study were of analytical reagent grade and used without further purification. Bismuth (II) nitrate pentahydry, sodium bromide, potassium hexcyanoferrate(II), copper(II)nitrate hydrate, lead(II)nitrate, hexaammineruthenium(III)chloride, iron(II)nitrate Methanol and zinc nitrate hexahydrate standard stock solutions (1000 mg/L, atomic absorption standard solution) were obtained from sigma-Aldrich. Potassium hexcyanoferrate (II) and hexaammineruthenium (III) chloride are redox mediators.0.1 M acetate buffer (pH 4.65) also obtained from sigma-Aldrich was used as supporting electrolyte. Glassy carbon was supplied by sigma-Aldrich and deionised water (18 M? cm) was used throughout. NafionÃ ®117 polymer from sigma-Aldrich and Bismuth (II) nitrate pentahydry was used to produce electrode films. All chemicals used in the experiment are for research and development purposes. 2.3. Electrode preparation 2.3.1 Cleaning and Setting up the GCE This involves the glassy carbon surface being polished with micro-sized abrasives in order to expose a new surface. A plastic Petri dish is prepared and a polishing pad placed into the dish. A few grams of 0.3 alpha alumina powder was placed onto the polishing pad and a solution was made by the addition of deionised water. The GCE was held at right angle to the pad, and polished in a circular motion until the GCE looked like a mirror surface. The electrode was rinsed with distilled water and air dried. Ex-situ preparation of bismuth film electrode The ex-situ bismuth film electrode was prepared by deposition of metallic bismuth onto a glassy carbon substrate electrode from 0.1M acetate buffer solution (ph 4.65) containing 100mg/L bismuth (II) nitrate pentahydry by applying a potential of -1.0V for 5mins with the biopotentiostat while the solution was stirred. Bismuth film electrode in the presence of bromide ions (sodium bromide) was prepared similarly from 0.1 M acetate buffer solution (ph 4.5) containing 50mg/L bismuth (II) and 50mg/L sodium bromide by applying a potential of 0.3V for 60s. This electrode was then transfer into a sample to analyse the analyte of interest. 2.4. Procedure Setting up the ivium biopotentiostat The ivium biopotentiostat, the computer CPU and the computer monitor are turn on at the mains. The computer is manually turned by pressing the on button on the CPU, after which the monitor will display a login screen. Once logged in the ivium soft icon on the desktop was double clicked to open the program. The parameters for the ivium biopotentiostat must be set. These settings change dependent on which method is being used. For example Differential pulse stripping voltammetry was used to quantify amount of copper in a 1 mM solution of potassium nitrate in deionised water by the following method. Click on Method and under the list of electroanalysis select Differential Pulse Stripping Voltammetry. In the Parameter Box, set the E start (V) = -0.35 and the E end (V) = 0.6 (the potential range within which the analyte is determined), Current Range =100mA, Pulse time (ms) =10, Pulse amplitude (mV) =10, E step (mV) =25, Scan rate (V/s) =0.05 and the pre-treatment Time (sec) = 300. Cyclic voltammetry was used to analyse the affect of scan rate by increasing the scan rate on Nafion modified GCE in a1mM solution of potassium nitrate in 0.1 M acetate buffer at ph 4.65 at different scan -rates : Click on Method and under the list of cyclic voltammetry select standard. In the Parameter Box, set the E start (V) = -0.4, Vertex 1(V) =0.7, Vertex 2(V) =-0.4, Current Range =1mA, E step (mV) =10 and Scan rate (V/s) =0.1. Once the settings were selected and the electrodes were connected the system was run by selecting start. The run is completed when the graph appears on the screen and the computer makes a beeping sound. The graph of results was then analysed. Preparation of a 1.0 mM Potassium chloride solution To prepare a solution of 1.0 mM potassium nitrate approximately 0.0046 g of potassium nitrate was weigh out in a clean dry weighing boat using a balance and placed into a 50 ml beaker. Solution is made up by dilution to a volume of 15ml with deionised water and mix well until the potassium chloride dissolves. Preparation of a 1.0 mM Potassium chloride and hexaamineruthenine solution To prepare a solution of 1.0 mM potassium nitrate and hexaamineruthenine approximately 0.0046 g of potassium nitrate and 0.111g of hexaamineruthenine was weigh out in a clean dry weighing boat using a balance and placed into a 50 ml beaker. Solution is made up by dilution to a volume of 15ml with deionised water and mix well until the potassium Cyclic voltammetry calculations for the effect of scan rate The cyclic voltammogram is characterized by the peak potential Ep, at which the current reaches a maximum value and by the value of the current ip. When the reduction process is reversible, the peak current is again given by the relation Ã¢â¬â Ip = 0.4463 nFA (Da) 1/2Cb Ã¢â¬â (1) With a= = at 25?C Ã¢â¬â (2) This relation results from the set of differential equations for fickÃ¢â¬â¢s law of diffusion. In term of adjustable parameters the peak current is given by the Randle-Sevcik equation. This equation describes the effect of scan rate on the peak current ip. The equation is given by- Ip= 2.69 ?105n3/2AD1/2Cbv1/2at 25?CÃ¢â¬â (3) Figure Cyclic voltammogram where ipc and ipa show the peak cathodic and anodic current respectively for a reversible reaction. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Effects of scan rate The effects of Scan rate was examined by increasing the scan rate from 50mV/s to 1000mV/s for a 1 mM solution of potassium chloride + hexaamineruthenine in deionised water. As the scan rate increased the current increased The 2,4-DNPHMCPE showed increase in the peak current with increase in scan rate Figure Cyclic voltammetry of GCE in 1 mM solution of potassium chloride + hexaamineruthenine in deionised water at different scan -rates a) 1000 mV/s b) 750mV/s c)400 mV/s d)100mv/s e)50mV/s Figure Cyclic voltammetry of Nafion modified GCE in a 1 mM solution of potassium chloride + hexaamineruthenine in deionised water at different scan -rates a) 1000 mV/s b) 750mV/s c)400 mV/s d)100mv/s e)50mV/s Nafion after(04/02/2011) Figure Cyclic voltammetry of Nafion modified GCE in a 1 mM solution of potassium chloride + hexaamineruthenine in deionised water at different scan -rates a) 750 mV/s b) 400mV/s c)200 mV/s d)100mv/s e)50mV/s f)20mV/s Bismuth in acetate baseline Figure Differential pulse voltammetry of bismuth modified GCE in a 0.1 M solution of acetate buffer at ph 4.65 with different concentrations of lead. a) 120Ã µL b) 100Ã µL c) 80Ã µLd) 40Ã µL Figure Differential pulse voltammetry of bismuth modified GCE in a 0.1 M solution of acetate buffer at ph 4.65 with different concentrations of zinc. a) 400Ã µL b) 300Ã µL c) 200Ã µLd) 150Ã µL e) 100Ã µL Figure Differential pulse voltammetry of bismuth modified GCE in a 0.1 M solution of acetate buffer at ph 4.65 with different concentrations of zinc. a) 600Ã µL b) 500Ã µL Figure Differential pulse voltammetry of bismuth modified GCE in a 0.1 M solution of acetate buffer at ph 4.65 with different concentrations of lead. a) 120Ã µL b) 100Ã µL c) 80Ã µLd) 40Ã µL Figure Differential pulse voltammetry of GCE in a 1mM solution of potassium nitrate and deionised water different concentrations of copper (II) nitrate added. a) 750Ã µL b) 450Ã µL c) 150Ã µL Figure Differential pulse voltammetry Nafion modified of GCE in a 1mM solution of potassium nitrate and deionised water with different concentrations of copper (II) nitrate additions. a) 650Ã µL b) 450Ã µL c) 150Ã µL Figure Differential pulse voltammetry of bismuth modified GCE in a 0.1 M solution of acetate buffer at ph 4.65 with different concentrations of lead. a) 120Ã µL b) 100Ã µL c) 80Ã µLd) 40Ã µL Figure Differential pulse voltammetry of bismuth modified GCE in a 0.1 M solution of acetate buffer at ph 4.65 with different concentrations of lead. a) 120Ã µL b) 100Ã µL c) 80Ã µLd) 40Ã µL Figure cyclic voltammetry of Nafion modified GCE in a1mM solution of iron (II) in 0.1 acetate buffer at ph 4.65 at different scan -rates. a) 100mV/s b) 50mV/s c) 20mV/s Figure cyclic voltammetry of Nafion modified GCE in a1mM solution of potassium nitrate in 0.1 M acetate buffer at ph 4.65 at different scan -rates. a) 100mV/s b) 50mV/s c) 20mV/s Conclusion ASA = Anodic stripping voltammetry AAS = Atomic absorption spectrometry Bi = Bismuth DME = Drop mercury electrode Reference Electrode kinetics: principles and methodology By C. H. Bamford, R. G. Compton Fundamentals of analytical chemistry, eighth edition Electrochemistry for chemists http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hanging_mercury_drop_electrode http://www.chem.unep.ch/mercury/report/Chapter5.htm http://www.epa.gov/ttn/oarpg/t3/reports/volume6.pdf http://electrochem.cwru.edu/encycl/art-p01-plants.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_field http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molar_concentration How to cite Determination of traces of heavy metal using anodic stripping voltammetry, Essay examples
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss alternative budgetary systems that may be more useful given the changing nature of the business environment. Answer: Introduction: In simple word, budget is an estimated quantitative expression for a set period. On the business perspective we can say that budget is a financial and quantitative statement prepared prior to a defined period of time of the policy to be performed for the purpose of attaining a given business objectives (Amans, Mazars-Chapelon and Villesque-Dubus 2015). The main objective of budgeting and budgetary control in an organisation is all about Planning, Co-ordination, Communication, Motivation, Controlling, Performance Evaluation and clarification of authority and responsibility (Rabiu et al. 2015). Due to rapidly changing environment, organisations may face difficulties in maintaining actual results with the standard, which only enable forecasts and predictions to be made out in future. In this context, the different types of budgetary control system have been opted to fulfil separate business criteria for specific financial target of performances. In this assignment, we are going to discuss the alternative budgetary systems, which organisations may incorporate into their financial planning and controlling process. It will explore Zero based budgeting, Activity based budgeting and Rolling budgeting for understanding different approaches and the pattern of their work. Discussion: The thought of rebuilding the company budget from the scratches can be a nightmare-inducing. Wiping the financial slate clean and starting from ground level is the main theme of Zero-based budgeting which never is an option to be considered as a normal business scenario. In case of ZBB, reviewed by budgeters of every program and expenditure before starting of budget cycle and justify each line item in case of receiving funding (Rigby and Bilodeau 2015). Therefore, it is a process by which funds are allocated based on the program efficiency and as per requirements rather than budget history. ZBB has a power to adopt any type of cost while incorporation of budgetary control such as operating expenses, capital expenditure, general and administrative costs, sales, variable distribution, marketing costs and cost of goods sold as well. At the successful planning of ZBB, organisations can generate radical savings and frees businesses from entrenched department and methodologies. The main highlights of Zero-based Budgeting are as follows: There is no relation with prior year spending with the ZBB budget (Ibrahim 2015). ZBB restricts increment and cuts of spending by not spreading evenly across budget. Budgets are engaged with specific activities and level of business services The entire funding system is targeted more on activities that align with the business strategies. The advantages of ZBB are as follows: It catalyzes broader perspective with departments across the organisation Resulting budget is well organised and justified and aligned to strategy ZBB increases operational efficiency by stringent challenging of assumptions The entire concept is supporting cost reduction by avoiding automatic budget enhancement in result of savings. The disadvantages of ZBB are as follows: The entire budgeting procedure is costly and time consuming as ZBB is rebuilt from deep within annually. In other case, the traditional budgets are maintained simple form and justification needed only for incremental changes. The ZBB procedure is risky because the potential savings are uncertain ZBB may face business cycle timing constraints at the time of execution It may be troublesome to the operation of the organisation The organisational culture or brand reputation could harm with the use of ZBB Specialised personnel are the pre-requirement for execution of this type of budgetary system into the management process. According to Kaplan and Atkinson 2015, Activity based Budgeting is process mainly based on the framework of the business activities. The entire budget is classified with the type of activities of the organisation. Once the full cost of each activity has been calculated the information about the cost driver has been formed and recorded and analysed by the responsible authority. We can describe how this budget is worked in the business environment with an example. For instances, there are two different stages of operation being performed by a manufacturing company of Mobile: related activity mechanism, assembling and the hour rate of each unit manufactured. With the help of two activities, the management might be able to save financial figure by accelerating the batch production, reduction of manufacturing time or even two activities composition may made happen. Therefore, ABB would not only function as monetary saver but can also enforce towards examine each activity. Bu ABB approache s, the management can become familiar with the production process of the business. For the formulation of ABB, the cost-driver is the main driving force for the analysis of profit potentiality of the product or services (Mahieu, Vroman, and Calluy 2015). Therefore, the entire concept of ABB can be divided into three stages: Activity identification and implementation of cost drivers into the business process Forecast the unit number of cost driver for the activity level requirements Ascertain different rates of the cost drivers The key advantages of ABB are as follows: Activity based Budgeting draws attention to related activities of overhead and their associated costs. The more emphasises are given towards the control of such activity costs and try to control the activity volume. While traditional budgeting approach tends to focus on only input costs, ABB maintains to concentrate more on outputs-based approach and recognise the related driver costs of activities (Mahal and Hossain 2015). The entire procedure followed the collection of activities and relate to the entire perspective that links well with the corresponding strategy of organisations. The following are the main disadvantages of Activity based Budgeting: The process of ABB can be considered as difficult by most of the people because organisations want to purchase certain type of activity based budgeting software while executing this budget technique into the particular system. In addition, organisations need to purchase such expensive software at the time of processing this type of budget and pay for licenses. Therefore, the financial burden is associated with the ABB approach. Another thing is that people of the organisation needs to inherently understand how to do this activity based budgeting to work. This is a long-term process to execute properly because every departmental manager of businesses requires to be understood the activity procedure and identify the main drivers related to that. In that case, this can lead to lost revenue and unproductive work sessions for those corresponding departments. In most of the cases, individuals are in charge of the business to handle budgeting and not management of the department. So, it is difficult to implement such alternative budgeting approach into the system. The Rolling budget is the process, mainly used in the changing nature of the business. It forecasts key business drivers, which are evaluated on a continual basis (Liang and Ordasi 2015). This leading planning tool will help businesses find opportunities amid persistent volatility and intense competition. The main objective of this kind of budgetary system is to foresee the relevant risks and opportunities by the dynamic business environment. It is not about the period updating against the annual budget and not associated with a particular financial year. Thus, the Rolling budget mainly discusses the involvement of the incremental extension of the existing budget model of organisations (Mejzini and Seidel 2015). When a business produces a one year static budget, some budget activities now are repeated every month. This is the context when the concept of rolling budget appears. Furthermore, if the company applies participative budgeting to establish its budget on a rolling basis, the total attending time of employee used over the course of year is substantial. As a result of which, it is best to use as learner approach to a rolling budget with fewer people involvement in the process. For example, XYZ Company has adopted a twelve month planning horizon for the period of January to December. Now after the period of January is complete, planning should be made for the following January by adding a new budget. So it still has a twelve month planning horizon that now extended from February of the recent year to January of the next year. In this way, the continuous forecasting takes place in the form of rolling budget. There are many advantages of rolling budget in the changing business scenario. The entire system includes, changes from the previous period into the next, maintain continuity and oversight. Therefore, it is a more up-to-date than a static budget which generally does not consider the changes made during the forecasting period. In means it is more flexible compare to static budgets. Rolling budget helps management to be more responsive for the unexpected changes in the various business circumstances. Rather than assessing performance based on the previous record like in static budget, the organisation more concentrated on target based performances in the case of rolling budget (Novyarni 2015). On the other way, the rolling budget concept is also criticized by many ways. Preparation of rolling budget is not adjustable when the circumstances are not changing rapidly (Kaplan and Atkinson 2015). In that context, it may be considered as a waste of time budgeting procedure. Secondly, Rolling budgets are generally prepared for a shorter time frame and do not have a wide perspective. Therefore, the decisions and business vision may have the potential depth requirement for growing any business. Conclusion: By the above discussion it can be easily understood that alternative budgeting procedures can be applied based on the specific business requirements. The rolling forecast takes place for maintain continuance with the existing business process. On the other hand, the ABB concept is more likely to identification of cost drivers and make budget based on activity based approach. Lastly, a complete renewal procedure is used for zero based budgeting where budgets are made from the scratches. References: Amans, P., Mazars-Chapelon, A. and Villesque-Dubus, F., 2015. Budgeting in institutional complexity: The case of performing arts organizations. Management Accounting Research, 27, pp.47-66. Bedford, D.S. and Malmi, T., 2015. Configurations of control: An exploratory analysis. Management Accounting Research, 27, pp.2-26. Ibrahim, M.M., 2015. A Budget for All Seasons. International Review of Management and Business Research, 4(4 Part 1), p.963. Kaplan, R.S. and Atkinson, A.A., 2015. Advanced management accounting. PHI Learning. Liang, Y. and Ordasi, C., 2015. Analysing the Role of Rolling Forecast from a Broad Perspective. Mahal, I. and Hossain, M.A., 2015. Activity-Based Costing (ABC)An Effective Tool for Better Management. Research Journal of Finance and Accounting, 6(4), pp.66-73. Mahieu, K., Vroman, S. and Calluy, P., 2015. Asset-based Budgeting in Practice. Controlling Management Review, 59(5), pp.29-37. Mejzini, N. and Seidel, H., 2015. Challenging the Principles of the Beyond Budgeting Model: Can you really go beyond?. Novyarni, N., 2015. Integrated Approach to Budget (Unified Budget Approach) Implementation Evaluation and Medium-Term Expenditure Framework in Supporting the Implementation of Performance Based Budgeting in Bandung and Cimahi City Government in West Java. Research Journal of Finance and Accounting, 6(2), pp.69-78. Rabiu, A.S., Goni, K., Alhaji, A.M. and Aliyu, M.T., 2015. The Role Of Budget And Budgetary Control On Organisational Performance: A Case Study Of Tahir Guest House, Kano State, Nigeria. Journal of Business Management Economics, 3(4). Rigby, D. and Bilodeau, B., 2015. Management Tools Trends 2015. London, Bain Company.